IO-550Continental TSIO-550-C engine installation in aTypeNational originManufacturerFirst run1983Major applicationsProduced1983-presentDeveloped fromThe Continental IO-550 engine is a large family of six-cylinder, horizontally opposed, air-cooled aircraft engines that were developed for use in. The first IO-550 was delivered in 1983 and the type remains in production.The IOF-550 is an Aerosance equipped version of the same basic engine, the TSIO-550 is a dual version and the TSIOL-550 is a liquid-cooled variant.There is no O-550 engine, which would be a carburetor-equipped variant, hence the base model is the IO-550.This engine family competes with the series which are also six-cylinder engines with similar power output and weight.
Contents.Design and development The IO-550 family of engines was developed from the series, with the stroke increased from 4.00 to 4.25 inches, increasing the displacement to 552 in³ (9.05 l). The engine family covers a power range from 280 hp (209 kW) to 360 hp (268 kW).The engines were first developed in the early 1980s and first certified on a regulatory basis of, 1 February 1965 amendment, 33-8, 2 May 1977.
The first IO-550 model was certified on 13 October 1983. Variants IO-550-A 300 hp (224 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 430.72 lb (195.37 kg). Certified 13 October 1983. IO-550-B 300 hp (224 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 421.61 lb (191.24 kg). Certified 13 October 1983. IO-550-C 300 hp (224 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 433.20 lb (196.50 kg). Certified 13 October 1983.
IO-550-D 300 hp (224 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 437.1 lb (198.3 kg). Certified 23 June 1988. IO-550-E 300 hp (224 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 450.50 lb (204.34 kg). Certified 20 December 1989. IO-550-F 300 hp (224 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 437.1 lb (198.3 kg). Similar to the IO-550-A,B & C, with a top-mounted induction system and 12-quart oil sump. Certified 23 June 1988.
IO-550-G 280 hp (209 kW) at 2500 rpm, dry weight 428.97 lb (194.58 kg). Certified 17 March 1989. IO-550-L 300 hp (224 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 438.5 lb (198.9 kg). Certified 23 June 1988. IO-550-N 310 hp (231 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 429.97 lb (195.03 kg). Similar to the IO-550-G with increased power rating.
Certified 16 August 1996. IO-550-P 310 hp (231 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 429 lb (195 kg). Similar to the IO-550-N with oil sump from the IO-550-L. Certified 1 March 2000. IO-550-R 310 hp (231 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 439.5 lb (199.4 kg). Similar to the IO-550-N but with the oil sump, oil suction tube and mount legs from the IO-550-B.
Certified 1 March 2000. FADEC models IOF-550-B 300 hp (224 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 447.1 lb (202.8 kg). Similar to the IO-550-B with an Aerosance FADEC fuel and ignition control system. Certified 4 February 2002. IOF-550-C 300 hp (224 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 453.2 lb (205.6 kg). Similar to the IO-550-C with an Aerosance FADEC fuel and ignition control system.
Certified 4 February 2002. IOF-550-D 300 hp (224 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 455.0 lb (206.4 kg). Similar to the IO-550-D with an Aerosance FADEC fuel and ignition control system. Certified 4 February 2002. IOF-550-E 300 hp (224 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 462.8 lb (209.9 kg). Similar to the IO-550-E with an Aerosance FADEC fuel and ignition control system.
Certified 4 February 2002. IOF-550-F 300 hp (224 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 460.1 lb (208.7 kg). Similar to the IO-550-F with an Aerosance FADEC fuel and ignition control system. Certified 4 February 2002.
IOF-550-L 300 hp (224 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 455.0 lb (206.4 kg). Similar to the IO-550-L with an Aerosance FADEC fuel and ignition control system. Certified 4 February 2002. IOF-550-N 310 hp (231 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 460.0 lb (208.7 kg). Similar to the IO-550-N with an Aerosance FADEC fuel and ignition control system. Certified 4 February 2002. IOF-550-P 310 hp (231 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 460.0 lb (208.7 kg).
Similar to the IO-550-P with an Aerosance FADEC fuel and ignition control system. Certified 4 February 2002. IOF-550-R 310 hp (231 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 470.5 lb (213.4 kg). Similar to the IO-550-R with an Aerosance FADEC fuel and ignition control system.
Certified 4 February 2002. Turbocharged models TSIO-550-A 360 hp (268 kW) at 2600 rpm, dry weight 442 lb (200 kg) plus two turbochargers of 28.2 lb (12.8 kg) each. TSIO-550-B 350 hp (261 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 442 lb (200 kg) plus two turbochargers of 28.2 lb (12.8 kg) each. Similar to the TSIO-550-A except with a 12 quart sump, sonic venturii removed and the two stage fuel pump replaced by a single stage fuel pump. TSIO-550-C 310 hp (231 kW) at 2600 rpm, dry weight 442 lb (200 kg) plus two turbochargers of 28.2 lb (12.8 kg) each.
TSIO-550-E 350 hp (261 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 442 lb (200 kg) plus two turbochargers of 28.2 lb (12.8 kg) each. Similar to TSIO-550-C with the oil sump and maximum continuous power rating of the TSIO-550-B. TSIO-550-G 310 hp (231 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 554 lb (251 kg) plus two turbochargers of 28.2 lb (12.8 kg) each.
Similar to the TSIO-550-E with smaller surface area intercoolers, different oil sump capacity and power rating. TSIO-550-K 315 hp (235 kW) at 2500 rpm, dry weight 522 lb (237 kg) plus two turbochargers of 28.2 lb (12.8 kg) each. Similar to the TSIO-550-E with new oil sump and capacity, decreased maximum continuous power, increased turbo boost pressure, decreased engine speed rating and tapered cylinder barrel fins.
Turbocharged & FADEC models. TSIOF-550-D TSIOF-550-D 350 hp (261 kW) at 2600 rpm, dry weight 558 lb (253 kg) plus two turbochargers of 35.2 lb (16.0 kg) each. Similar to the TSIOF-550-J except the exhaust system and low voltage harness. TSIOF-550-J 350 hp (261 kW) at 2600 rpm, dry weight 558 lb (253 kg) plus two turbochargers of 35.2 lb (16.0 kg) each. Similar to the TSIO-550-E except for fuel injection and ignition control, turbochargers, tapered cylinder barrel fins, oil sump and capacity, maximum continuous speed and manifold pressure rating.
TSIOF-550-K 315 hp (235 kW) at 2500 rpm, dry weight 537.3 lb (243.7 kg) plus two turbochargers of 28.2 lb (12.8 kg) each. Similar to the TSIO-550-K but with FADEC fuel injection and ignition control.
Liquid-cooled models TSIOL-550-A 350 hp (261 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 402 lb (182 kg). Similar to the but with a new cylinder design that uses liquid cooling. The coolant manifold is on top of the cylinder head, with a coolant pump fitted to the starter adapter, driven by the starter adapter shaft and the oil cooler is mounted on the airframe, not the engine. The engine has an TA81 turbocharger. TSIOL-550-B 325 hp (242 kW) at 2700 rpm, dry weight 557 lb (253 kg). Similar to the but with a new cylinder design that uses liquid cooling. The coolant manifold is on top of the cylinder head, with a coolant pump fitted to the starter adapter, driven by the propeller shaft using sheaves, the oil cooler is mounted on the airframe, not the engine.
A coolant tank and coolant lines are added to the installation. The engine has an AiResearch TS06 turbocharger.
TSIOL-550-C 350 hp (261 kW) at 2600 rpm, dry weight 546 lb (248 kg). Similar to the TSIOL-550-A but with the exhaust system and turbocharger bracket from the TSIOL-550-B. The engine is modified to accept the AiResearch TA81 turbocharger. Neither oil nor coolant radiators are provided with the engine. Geared models GIO-550-A A special non-certified geared engine developed for the covert reconnaissance aircraft, incorporating 3:2 gear reduction to 2267 rpm.
Applications. Equipped with a TSIO-550 IO-550.
(STC SA09133SC, modification). (modification). (modification).TSIO-550.TSIOF-550.TSIOL-550.GIO-550.Specifications (IO-550-A) Data from Type Certificate Data Sheet E3SO.
General characteristics. Type: 6-cylinder air-cooled aircraft piston engine. Bore: 5.25 in (133.4 mm). Stroke: 4.25 in (108.0 mm). Displacement: 552 in³ (9.05 L). Dry weight: 430.72 lb dry (195.37 kg)Components. Fuel system: TCM.
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Fuel type: 100LL. Cooling system: Air-cooledPerformance. Power output: 300 hp (224 kW) at 2,700 rpm.: 0.54 hp/in³ (24.6 kW/L).: 8.5:1.: 0.70 hp/lb (1.15 kW/kg)See also Comparable engines.Related lists.References. ^ (March 2007).
Retrieved 2008-12-28. ^ (March 2010). Retrieved 21 June 2010.
^ (August 1997). Retrieved 2008-12-28. (August 2007). Retrieved 2009-01-03.
Stoll, Alex (September 2001). Retrieved 2008-06-04. TELEDYNE CONTINENTAL (October 2005). Retrieved 2009-07-14. Parsch, Andreas (February 2008).
Retrieved 2009-07-14. (4 November 1999). Retrieved 9 September 2014., Disciples of Flight, 2/21/15, Aircraft Engine Upgrade section.External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to.
Ultrafiltration preserves biological activity and saves time - Protein purification technology has progressed from methods as diverse as chemical precipitation for sample concentration or dialysis for buffer exchange towards pressure-driven purification cross flow systems utilizing ultrafiltration membranes. Ultrafiltration (UF) techniques rely on the use of polymeric membranes with highly defined pore sizes to separate molecules according to size. Simply put, UF procedures rely on the use of fluid pressure to drive the migration of the smaller molecules through a UF membrane with the simultaneous retention of larger molecules.While chemical precipitation can be used to concentrate a protein sample, separation with ultrafiltration is based on mechanical rather than chemical interactions allowing a researcher to perform sample concentration without the addition of denaturing solvents or salts. Buffer exchange using dialysis technologies use large volumes of buffer and since the only force acting upon the solution is diffusion, the process can take several days. Pre-assembled and simple to use ultrafiltration devices can rapidly perform either concentration or buffer exchange procedures without the extensive handling required for many other techniques. Ultrafiltration can be performed in one of two operational modes: Direct Flow Filtration (DFF), or Tangential Flow Filtration (TFF, Figure 1). DFF works well for small volumes (up to 30 mL) using centrifugal devices, however, DFF technologies can fall prey to problems with membrane fouling.
To reduce the formation of a gel layer, cross flow can be generated on the upstream side of the membrane using a floating stir bar configuration (stirred cell) or by creating a controlled laminar flow. While stirred cell operations tend to improve UF performance, they are still limited to achieving the optimal performance since the velocity and subsequent level of agitation is dependent on the sweep of the bar that varies along the radius of the sweep.
Tangential flow filtration (TFF) is a rapid and efficient method for separation and purification of biomolecules. It can be applied to a wide range of biological fields such as immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry,. TFF can be used to concentrate and desalt sample solutions ranging in volume from 10 mL to thousands of liters. It can be used to fractionate large from small biomolecules, harvest cell suspensions, and clarify fermentation broths and cell lysates.Why Use Tangential Flow Filtration?. Easy to set up and use – Simply connect the TFF device to a pump and pressure gauge(s) with tubing and a few fittings, add your sample to the reservoir, and begin filtration. Fast and efficient – It is easier to set up and much faster than dialysis.
Higher concentrations can be achieved in less time than when using centrifugal devices or stirred cells. Perform two steps with one system – Concentrate and diafilter a sample on the same system, saving time and avoiding product loss. Can be scaled up or scaled down – Materials of construction and cassette path length allow conditions established during pilot-scale trials to be applied to process scale applications. TFF devices that can process sample volumes as small as 10 mL or as large as thousands of liters are available.
Economical – TFF devices and cassettes can be cleaned and reused, or disposed of after single use. A simple integrity test can be performed to confirm that membrane and seals are intact.Consider the Biomolecule of InterestYour biomolecule of interest, or product, can be retained and separated from the low molecular weight contaminants, or it can be passed and purified from higher molecular weight contaminants and particles.In general, a membrane with a molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) should be selected that is three to six times smaller than the molecular weight of the protein to be retained. Other factors can also impact the selection of the appropriate MWCO. For example, if flow rate (or processing time) is a major consideration, selection of a membrane with an MWCO toward the lower end of this range (3x) will yield higher flow rates. If recovery is the primary concern, selection of a tighter membrane (6x) will yield maximum recovery (with a slower flow rate). These values should be used as a general guide, as solute retention and selectivity can vary depending on many factors, such as transmembrane pressure, molecular shape or structure, solute concentration, presence of other solutes, and ionic conditions.Our membranes are highly selective and typically achieve recoveries in the range of 95 to 99%. The narrow pore size distribution of these membranes results in minimal molecule retention of molecular weights below the MWCO of the membrane.Consider Fluid CharacteristicsSample concentration and viscosity determine the type of channel that is required for the process run.
Our lab scale TFF devices are available in screen or suspended screen configurations. Typically, screen channel configuration is used for clarified, dilute solutions free of particulate or aggregates. Suspended screen channel TFF cassettes provide better performance with highly viscous or particulate laden solutions.Consider the Sample Volume and Processing TimeChoosing the appropriate cassette or device size depends on the total sample volume, the required process time, and the desired final sample volume.Our Minimate™ system works with the Minimate capsules to easily process sample volumes up to 1000 mL. For process development and scale-up applications, Pall Life Sciences offers an extensive line of TFF holders and cassettes. With these products, a complete TFF system for full production can be optimized using the volumes typically generated in the development or discovery lab. Key Applications for TFFThe primary applications for TFF are concentration, diafiltration (desalting and buffer exchange), and fractionation of large from small biomolecules. In addition, it can be used for clarification and removal of cells, as well as cellular debris from fermentation or cell culture broths.ConcentrationConcentration is a simple process that involves removing fluid from a solution while retaining the solute molecules.
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The concentration of the solute increases in direct proportion to the decrease in solution volume (i.e., halving the volume effectively doubles the concentration). To concentrate a sample, choose an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane with an MWCO that is substantially lower than the molecular weight of the molecules to be retained. This is important in order to assure complete retention and high recovery of the target molecule.DiafiltrationDiafiltration is the fractionation process that washes smaller molecules through a membrane and leaves larger molecules in the retentate without ultimately changing concentration. It can be used to remove salts or exchange buffers.
It can remove ethanol or other small solvents or additives.There are several ways to perform diafiltration. In continuous diafiltration, the diafiltration solution (water or buffer) is added to the sample feed reservoir at the same rate as filtrate is generated. In this way, the volume in the sample reservoir remains constant, but the small molecules (e.g., salts) that can freely permeate through the membrane are washed away.
Using salt removal as an example, each additional diafiltration volume (DV) reduces the salt concentration further. (Adding a volume of water or buffer to the feed reservoir equal to the volume of product in the system, then concentrating back to the starting volume constitutes one diafiltration volume. For example, if you have a 500 mL sample to start, 1 DV = 500 mL.) Using 5 DV will reduce the ionic strength by 99% with continuous diafiltration.In discontinuous diafiltration, the solution is first diluted and then concentrated back to the starting volume. This process is then repeated until the required concentration of small molecules (e.g., salts) remaining in the reservoir is reached. Each additional DV reduces the salt concentration further. Using 5 DV will reduce the ionic strength by 96% with discontinuous diafiltration. Continuous diafiltration requires less filtrate volume to achieve the same degree of salt reduction as discontinuous diafiltration, as illustrated in the table on the right.
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By first concentrating a sample, the amount of diafiltration solution required to achieve a specified ionic strength can be substantially reduced. To reduce the ionic strength of a 1 liter sample by 96% using discontinuous diafiltration requires 5 DV or, in this case, 5 liters. If the sample is first concentrated tenfold to 100 mL, then 5 DV is now only 500 mL. This represents a substantial savings in buffer and time.